It is very well known that the reproductive systems of females are more complex than that of males. Usually, the most common reason for male infertility is due to the sperm itself. True enough, millions of sperm cells are produced and released during ejaculation. However, no matter how large the amounts of these sperms are released, only a few would be able to reach the female egg cell that is located within the uterus and would be able to fertilize it.


The number of mature sperms that could travel its way to the uterus would determine the man's ability to impregnate his wife. Actually, the higher the number of mature sperm cells that would reach the uterus there will be a greater chance that the female egg cell will be fertilized and implanted.


Once the sperm cell and the cell will come in contact, a lot of reactions, both biological and chemical may occur. In general, the egg cell contains a protective coating and for it to be fertilized by a sperm cell, the sperm cell has to drill down the protective coating of the egg cell. This means that if there are a lot of sperm cells that are able to reach the egg cell within the uterus, then there will be a greater possibility that one of these sperms will be able to destroy the protective coating in the egg cell. The released sperm cell during ejaculation is the one that is being counted to determine the levels of sperm cell.


Actually, infertility can be caused by a lot of problems. These problems would include the adequacy of sperms and its motility. Sperm count is generally the determinant for male infertility. As much as possible, physicians would recommend a higher number of mature sperms rather than sperms that are just enough or within the normal levels. Aside from that, the quality and maturity of sperm cells are also an important consideration.


Sperm cells that are very motile, or those that travels faster, are much better and much preferred. If a sperm is able to reach the egg cell but it is immature, it won't be able to fertilize the egg cell because its structure is incomplete and it won't be able to drill down the protective coating outside the egg cell. There are some cases wherein males with inadequate sperm count have high quality sperms and remain to be fertile. This means that the condition of infertility among men is truly dependent on a lot of factors.


The male reproductive system consists of those structures in the male body designed to create life. The reproductive system includes the two testes, a network of ducts, the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the penis.


The testes are two oval glands located in the scrotum (the pouch of skin that hangs behind the penis). They produce the male sex hormone testosterone and sperm (male reproductive cells). Sex hormones control the secondary male sex characteristics (such as growth of the penis and of body hair, voice change, and increased muscle mass), which begin to appear at puberty.


The testes discharge sperm into the epididymis, the first structure in the duct system. Other passageways include the two vasa deferentia (the plural of vas deferens), the ejaculatory duct, and the urethra (the tube that connects the bladder to the outside of the body).


The epididymis runs along the top and side of each testis. Inside the epididymis are several ducts that conduct sperm from the testis into the vas deferens. The vas deferens loops up into the body before descending into a duct in the seminal vesicle. This duct joins the ejaculatory duct, which extends through the prostate gland, and enters the upper segment of the urethra. At different times, the urethra functions as a passageway for urine and for sperm.


External reproductive structures:


Most the structures and organs of the male reproductive system are found on the outside of the male’s body. These structures include the penis, scrotum and testicles.


The penis has a long, cylindrical shape and is made up of two parts, shaft and glans. These parts of the penis consist of erectile tissue are filled with blood. When the man is sexually aroused, the penis becomes erect and ready for penetration during intercourse. Once orgasm is reached, semen which contains sperm is ejaculated. The glans is the tip or head of the penis which has a loose, elasticized covering of skin called the foreskin and allows for changes in penis size when an erection occurs. The shaft is the main part of the penis and contains the urethra that carries the semen and urine.


The scrotum is a loose bag of skin that is located behind the penis. It contains the testicles, nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum protects the testicles and also regulates the temperature for sperm development – the temperature of the testicles must be at a cooler temperature than the rest of the body.


The testicles (testes) are two small oval-shaped organs that are found inside the scrotum. They are responsible for producing sperm as well as the making of testosterone (male sex hormone).


Internal reproductive structures (also referred to as the accessory organs) include:


The vas deferens is a long tube that is found between the epididymis and urethra and joins them together. It carries the sperm from the testes to the urethra during ejaculation.


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The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the ducts of the seminal vesicles. They empty into the urethra, and during ejaculation, semen travels through the ducts and is released via the penis.


The urethra is the tube that releases urine from the bladder to outside of the body. It also ejaculates semen when a reaches orgasm – when ejaculation occurs, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra.


The seminal vesicles are sac-like glands that are located behind the bladder. These glands expel a sugar-rich fluid that promotes sperm motility.


The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that surrounds the bladder and urethra. It releases prostate fluids that forms part of the seminal fluid and helps to nourish the sperm.


The bulbourethral glands also known as Cowper’s glands are the size of a pea and are situated below the prostate gland. These glands secrete a clear fluid that is transported into the urethra and acts as a lubricant to neutralize acid caused by urine.


The epididymis is a long tube that is located at the back of each testicle. This tube stores and transports sperm cells produced in the testicles and also helps to collect immature sperm from the testicles.


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