The diseases which are listed under Diabetes Mellitus are many with the most common being Type-1 diabetes and Type-2 diabetes. These are diseases of the metabolic system and involve the body's ability in metabolizing sugar using the hormone insulin. Insulin helps the cells use the simple sugar glucose which is needed for repair, growth and energy.
In Type-1 diabetes, the body produces little or no insulin so those with this type of diabetes need to be on insulin therapy for their entire lives. Before 1924 Type-1 diabetes usually ended with dead after a couple of years but with the advent of insulin those who have this disease are now able to manage this chronic condition. Type-1 diabetes is also known as juvenile diabetes because those who have this type of diabetes are usually diagnosed with it between the ages of 9 and 15 years of age.
Following are the Causes of Diabetes
Hereditary or Inherited Traits : It is strongly believed that due to some genes which passes from one generation to another, a person can inherit diabetes. It depends upon closeness of blood relationship as mother is diabetic, the risk is 2 to 3%, father is diabetic, the risk is more than the previous case and if both the parents are diabetic, the child has much greater risk for diabetes.
Age : Increased age is a factor which gives more possibility than in younger age. This disease may occur at any age, but 80% of cases occur after 50 year, incidences increase with the age factor.
Poor Diet (Malnutrition Related Diabetes) : Improper nutrition, low protein and fiber intake, high intake of refined products are the expected reasons for developing diabetes.
Obesity and Fat Distribution : Being overweight means increased insulin resistance, that is if body fat is more than 30%, BMI 25+, waist grith 35 inches in women or 40 inches in males.
Sedentary Lifestyle : People with sedentary lifestyle are more prone to diabetes, when compared to those who exercise thrice a week, are at low risk of falling prey to diabetes.
Stress : Either physical injury or emotional disturbance is frequently blamed as the initial cause of the disease. Any disturbance in Cortiosteroid or ACTH therapy may lead to clinical signs of the disease.
Drug Induced: Clozapine (Clozaril), olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel) and ziprasidone (Geodon) are known to induce this lethal disease.
Infection : Some of the strephylococci is suppose to be responsible factor for infection in pancreas.
Sex : Diabetes is commonly seen in elderly especially males but, strongly in women and those females with multiple pregnancy or suffering from (PCOS) Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
Hypertension : It had been reported in many studies that there is direct relation between high systolic pressure and diabetes.
Serum lipids and lipoproteins : High triglyceride and cholesterol level in the blood is related to high blood sugars, in some cases it has been studied that risk is involved even with low HDL levels in circulating blood.
If you or someone you know has diabetes, they would be wise to make healthful lifestyle choices in diet, exercise, and other health habits. These will help to improve glycemic (blood sugar) control and prevent or minimize complications of diabetes.
Diet: A healthy diet is key to controlling blood sugar levels and preventing diabetes complications.
If the patient is obese and has had difficulty losing weight on their own, talk to a healthcare provider. He or she can recommend a dietitian or a weight modification program to help the patient reach a goal.
Eat a consistent, well-balanced diet that is high in fiber, low in saturated fat, and low in concentrated sweets.
A consistent diet that includes roughly the same number of calories at about the same times of day helps the healthcare provider prescribe the correct dose of medication or insulin.
It will also help to keep blood sugar at a relatively even level and avoid excessively low or high blood sugar levels, which can be dangerous and even life-threatening.
Exercise: Regular exercise, in any form, can help reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Activity can also reduce the risk of developing complications of diabetes such as heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, blindness, and leg ulcers.
As little as 20 minutes of walking three times a week has a proven beneficial effect. Any exercise is beneficial; no matter how light or how long, some exercise is better than no exercise.
If the patient has complications of diabetes (eye, kidney, or nerve problems), they may be limited both in type of exercise and amount of exercise they can safely do without worsening their condition. Consult with your health care provider before starting any exercise program.
Alcohol use: Moderate or eliminate consumption of alcohol. Try to have no more than seven alcoholic drinks in a week and never more than two or three in an evening. One drink is considered 1.5 ounces of liquor, 6 ounces of wine, or 12 ounces of beer. Excessive alcohol use is a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Alcohol consumption can cause low or high blood sugar levels, nerve pain called neuritis, and increase in triglycerides, which is a type of fat in our blood.
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Smoking: If the patient has diabetes, and you smoke cigarettes or use any other form of tobacco, they are raising the risks markedly for nearly all of the complications of diabetes. Smoking damages blood vessels and contributes to heart disease, stroke, and poor circulation in the limbs. If someone needs help quitting, talk to a healthcare provider.
Self-monitored blood glucose: Check blood sugar levels frequently, at least before meals and at bedtime, and record the results in a logbook.
This log should also include insulin or oral medication doses and times, when and what the patient ate, when and for how long they exercised, and any significant events of the day such as high or low blood sugar levels and how they treated the problem.
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