In both types of diabetes, signs and symptoms are more likely to be similar as the blood sugar is high, either due to less or no production of insulin, or insulin resistance. In any case, if there is inadequate glucose in the cells, it is identifiable through certain signs and symptoms. These symptoms are quickly relieved once the Diabetes is treated and also reduce the chances of developing serious health problems.
Diabetes Type 1:
In type 1, the pancreas stop producing insulin due to autuimmune response or possibly viral attack on pancreas. In absence of insulin, body cells don’t get the required glucose for producing ATP (Adenosin Triphosphate) units which results into primary symptom in the form of nausea and vomiting. In later stage, which leads to ketoacidosis, the body starts breaking down the muscle tissue and fat for producing energy hence, causing fast weight loss. Dehydration is also usually observed due to electrolyte disturbance. In advanced stages, coma and death is witnessed.
Diabetes Type 2:
Increased fatigue : Due to inefficiency of the cell to metabolize glucose, reserve fat of body is metabolized to gain energy. When fat is broken down in the body, it uses more energy as compared to glucose, hence body goes in negative calorie effect, which results in fatigue.
Polydipsia : As the concentration of glucose increases in the blood, brain receives signal for diluting it and, in its counteraction we feel thirsty.
Polyuria: Increase in urine production is due to excess glucose present in body. Body gets rid of the extra sugar in the blood by excreting it through urine. This leads to dehydration because along with the sugar, a large amount of water is excreted out of the body.
Polyphegia : The hormone insulin is also responsible for stimulating hunger. In order to cope up with high sugar levels in blood, body produces insulin which leads to increased hunger.
Weight flactuation : Factors like loss of water (polyuria), glucosuria , metabolism of body fat and protein may lead to weight loss. Few cases may show weight gain due to increased appetite.
Blurry vision : Hyperosmolar hyperglycemia nonketotic syndrome is the condition when body fluid is pulled out of tissues including lenses of the eye, which affects its ability to focus, resulting blurry vision.
Irritability : It is a sign of high blood sugar because of the inefficient glucose supply to the brain and other body organs, which makes us feel tired and uneasy.
Infections : The body gives few signals whenever there is fluctuation in blood sugar (due to suppression of immune system) by frequent skin infections like fungal or bacterial or UTI (urinary tract infection).
Poor wound healing : High blood sugar resists the flourishing of WBC, (white blood cell) which are responsible for body immune system. When these cells do not function accordingly, wound healing is not at good pace. Secondly, long standing diabetes leads to thickening of blood vessels which affect proper circulation of blood in different body parts.
Diabetes diet plan:
The diabetic diet plan relies upon the proper proportion of carbohydrates to proteins and fats.
The diet needs to provide some dietary fat to help prevent post-meal spikes in blood sugar levels. However, saturated fats should be limited to reduce the risk of heart disease.
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Protein should be kept to 20% or less of daily calories in order to prevent or delay the onset of diabetic kidney disease
The target of a Diabetes Diets is to achieve and maintain recommended blood glucose levels (70-140 mg/dl), cholesterol levels (200 mg/dl or less), and blood pressure (120/80 mm Hg).
Weight loss is often beneficial for people with type II diabetes. Mild to moderate weight loss is known to help control this type of diabetes significantly, even if the desirable body weight is not achieved. Losing 7 to 15 kgs of excess weight results in significant improvement in respect to the goals listed above. Weight loss may even help to reduce the dosage of anti diabetic medication.
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